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The Lefler Center

for the study of Neurodegenerative Diseases


Lefler grantees have made some groundbreaking discoveries. The portfolio of Lefler Center research ranges from high-resolution molecular studies, to new insights into cellular functions, circuit mapping in the brain, and has even led to the discovery of new analgesics. Each discovery contributes a piece to a complex puzzle. Together, they describe the landscape of brain function, the fundamental basis for understanding nervous system disease. The following list of selected publications provides a glimpse at the output of our community of gifted researchers, demonstrating the value of convening an interdisciplinary research community dedicated to a common goal.


Abraira VE, Kuehn ED, Chirila AM, Springel MW, Toliver AA, Zimmerman AL, Orefice LL, Boyle KA, Bai L, Song BJ, Bashista KA, O’Neill TG, Zhuo J, Tsan C, Hoynoski J, Rutlin M, Kus L, Niederkofler V, Watanabe M, Dymecki SM, Nelson SB, Heintz N, Hughes DI, Ginty DD. The Cellular and Synaptic Architecture of the Mechanosensory Dorsal Horn. Cell. 2017;168(1-2):295-310.e19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.010.

Ade KK, Janssen MJ, Ortinski PI, Vicini S, Wan Y, Chen M, et al. Differential Tonic GABA Conductances in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons. Journal of Neuroscience. 2008;28(5):1185-97. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3908-07.2008.

Almasi S, Xu X, Ben-Zvi A, Lacoste B, Gu C, Miller EL. A novel method for identifying a graph-based representation of 3-D microvascular networks from fluorescence microscopy image stacks. Medical image analysis. 2015;20(1):208-23. doi: 10.1016/

Antal M, Beneduce BM, Regehr WG. The Substantia Nigra Conveys Target-Dependent Excitatory and Inhibitory Outputs from the Basal Ganglia to the Thalamus. Journal of Neuroscience. 2014;34(23):8032-42. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0236-14.2014.

Azim E, Shnider SJ, Cederquist GY, Sohur US, Macklis JD. Lmo4 and Clim1 progressively delineate cortical projection neuron subtypes during development. Cerebral cortex (New York, NY : 1991). 2009;19 Suppl 1:i62-9. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp030.

Bai L, Lehnert BP, Liu J, Neubarth NL, Dickendesher TL, Nwe PH, Cassidy C, Woodbury CJ, Ginty DD. Genetic Identification of an Expansive Mechanoreceptor Sensitive to Skin Stroking. Cell. 2015;163(7):1783-1795. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.060.

Berger Z, Smith KA, Lavoie MJ. Membrane localization of LRRK2 is associated with increased formation of the highly active LRRK2 dimer and changes in its phosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2010;49(26):5511-23. doi: 10.1021/bi100157u.

Biffi A, Plourde A, Shen Y, Onofrio R, Smith EE, Frosch M, et al. Screening for familial APP mutations in sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PloS one. 2010;5(11):e13949-e. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013949.

Cao L, Rickenbacher GT, Rodriguez S, Moulia TW, Albers MW. The precision of axon targeting of mouse olfactory sensory neurons requires the BACE1 protease. Scientific reports. 2012;2:231-. doi: 10.1038/srep00231.

Chen L, Periquet M, Wang X, Negro A, McLean PJ, Hyman BT, et al. Tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein have opposing effects on neurotoxicity and soluble oligomer formation. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2009;119(11):3257-65. doi: 10.1172/JCI39088.

DaRocha-Souto B, Coma M, Pérez-Nievas BG, Scotton TC, Siao M, Sánchez-Ferrer P, et al. Activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta mediates β-amyloid induced neuritic damage in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of disease. 2012;45(1):425-37. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.09.002.

Dashkoff J, Lerner EP, Truong N, Klickstein JA, Fan Z, Mu D, et al. Tailored transgene expression to specific cell types in the central nervous system after peripheral injection with AAV9. Molecular Therapy – Methods & Clinical Development. 2016;3:16081-. doi: 10.1038/mtm.2016.81.

Davies SE, Hallett PJ, Moens T, Smith G, Mangano E, Kim HT, et al. Enhanced ubiquitin-dependent degradation by Nedd4 protects against α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of disease. 2014;64:79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2013.12.011.

Del Rio T, Nishitani AM, Yu W-M, Goodrich LV. In vivo analysis of Lrig genes reveals redundant and independent functions in the inner ear. PLoS genetics. 2013;9(9):e1003824-e. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003824.

Ding JB, Oh W-J, Sabatini BL, Gu C. Semaphorin 3E-Plexin-D1 signaling controls pathway-specific synapse formation in the striatum. Nature neuroscience. 2012;15(2):215-23. doi: 10.1038/nn.3003.

Dissing-Olesen L, Hong S, Stevens B. New Brain Lymphatic Vessels Drain Old Concepts. EBioMedicine. 2015;2(8):776-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.08.019.

Farrar CT, William CM, Hudry E, Hashimoto T, Hyman BT. RNA aptamer probes as optical imaging agents for the detection of amyloid plaques. PLoS one. 2014;9(2):e89901-e. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089901.

Fitzgerald JK, Freedman DJ, Assad JA. Generalized associative representations in parietal cortex. Nature neuroscience. 2011;14(8):1075-9. doi: 10.1038/nn.2878.

Fitzgerald JK, Freedman DJ, Fanini A, Bennur S, Gold JI, Assad JA. Biased associative representations in parietal cortex. Neuron. 2013;77(1):180-91. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.11.014.

Fricker-Gates RA, Shin JJ, Tai CC, Catapano LA, Macklis JD. Late-stage immature neocortical neurons reconstruct interhemispheric connections and form synaptic contacts with increased efficiency in adult mouse cortex undergoing targeted neurodegeneration. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2002;22(10):4045-56. doi: 20026384.

Galea E, Morrison W, Hudry E, Arbel-Ornath M, Bacskai BJ, Gómez-Isla T, et al. Topological analyses in APP/PS1 mice reveal that astrocytes do not migrate to amyloid-β plaques. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(51):15556-61. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516779112.

Garcia-Alloza M, Prada C, Lattarulo C, Fine S, Borrelli LA, Betensky R, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition reduces oxidative stress associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy in vivo in transgenic mice. Journal of neurochemistry. 2009;109(6):1636-47. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06096.x.

Garcia-Alloza M, Robbins EM, Zhang-Nunes SX, Purcell SM, Betensky RA, Raju S, et al. Characterization of amyloid deposition in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Neurobiology of disease. 2006;24(3):516-24. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2006.08.017.

Gates MA, Fricker-Gates RA, Macklis JD. Reconstruction of cortical circuitry. Progress in brain research. 2000;127:115-56.

Gelfand MV, Hagan N, Tata A, Oh W-J, Lacoste B, Kang K-T, et al. Neuropilin-1 functions as a VEGFR2 co-receptor to guide developmental angiogenesis independent of ligand binding. eLife. 2014;3:e03720-e. doi: 10.7554/eLife.03720.

Gierdalski M, Sardi SP, Corfas G, Juliano SL. Endogenous neuregulin restores radial glia in a (ferret) model of cortical dysplasia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2005;25(37):8498-504. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1476-05.2005.

Greenberg SM, Grabowski T, Gurol ME, Skehan ME, Nandigam RNK, Becker JA, et al. Detection of isolated cerebrovascular beta-amyloid with Pittsburgh compound B. Annals of neurology. 2008;64(5):587-91. doi: 10.1002/ana.21528.

Greer Paul L, Bear Daniel M, Lassance J-M, Bloom Maria L, Tsukahara T, Pashkovski Stan L, et al. A Family of non-GPCR Chemosensors Defines an Alternative Logic for Mammalian Olfaction. Cell. 2016;165(7):1734-48. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.001.

Gregory JL, Prada CM, Fine SJ, Garcia-Alloza M, Betensky RA, Arbel-Ornath M, et al. Reducing available soluble β-amyloid prevents progression of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in transgenic mice. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 2012;71(11):1009-17. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182729845.

Gross GG, Straub C, Perez-Sanchez J, Dempsey WP, Junge JA, Roberts RW, et al. An E3-ligase-based method for ablating inhibitory synapses. Nature methods. 2016;13(8):673-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.3894.

Hamouda, AK, Kimm, T, Cohen, JB (2013) Physostigmine and galanthamine bind in the presence of agonist at the canonical and non-canonical subunit interfaces of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J. Neuroscience 33:485-494. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3483-12.2013.

Hamouda, AK, Wang, ZJ, Stewart, DA, Jain, AD, Glennon, RA, Cohen, JB (2015) Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) and [3H]dFBr-labeled binding sites in a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Mol. Pharmacol. 88: 1-11. doi: 10.1124/mol.115.098913.

Hamouda, AK, Deba, F, Wang, ZJ, Cohen, JB (2016) Photolabeling a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-selective positive allosteric modulator. Mol. Pharmacol. 89:575-584. doi: 10.1124/mol.116.103341.

Hong S, Beja-Glasser VF, Nfonoyim BM, Frouin A, Li S, Ramakrishnan S, et al. Complement and microglia mediate early synapse loss in Alzheimer mouse models. Science (New York, NY). 2016;352(6286):712-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8373.

Hong S, Stevens B. Microglia: Phagocytosing to Clear, Sculpt, and Eliminate. Developmental cell. 2016;38(2):126-8. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.07.006.

Hori Y, Takeda S, Cho H, Wegmann S, Shoup TM, Takahashi K, et al. A Food and Drug Administration-approved asthma therapeutic agent impacts amyloid β in the brain in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2015;290(4):1966-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.586602.

Huang S, O’Donovan KJ, Turner EE, Zhong J, Ginty DD. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals converge on the Runx1/CBFβ transcription factor for nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. Elife. 2015;4:e10874. doi:10.7554/eLife.10874.

Hudry E, Martin C, Gandhi S, György B, Scheffer DI, Mu D, et al. Exosome-associated AAV vector as a robust and convenient neuroscience tool. Gene therapy. 2016;23(4):380-92. doi: 10.1038/gt.2016.11.

Hudry E, Dashkoff J, Roe AD, Takeda S, Koffie RM, Hashimoto T, et al. Gene transfer of human Apoe isoforms results in differential modulation of amyloid deposition and neurotoxicity in mouse brain. Science translational medicine. 2013;5(212):212ra161-212ra161. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007000.

Hudry E, Wu H-Y, Arbel-Ornath M, Hashimoto T, Matsouaka R, Fan Z, et al. Inhibition of the NFAT pathway alleviates amyloid β neurotoxicity in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2012;32(9):3176-92. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6439-11.2012.

Hyman BT, Growdon JH, Albers MW, Buckner RL, Chhatwal J, Gomez-Isla MT, et al. Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center: progress and challenges. Alzheimer’s & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer’s Association. 2015;11(10):1241-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.06.1887.

Jha RM, Liu X, Chrenek R, Madsen JR, Cardozo DL. The Postnatal Human Filum Terminale Is a Source of Autologous Multipotent Neurospheres Capable of Generating Motor Neurons. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(1):118-29. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318276b445.

Jin J, Wu L-J, Jun J, Cheng X, Xu H, Andrews NC, et al. The channel kinase, TRPM7, is required for early embryonic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012;109(5):E225-33. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1120033109.

Kim J, Oh W-J, Gaiano N, Yoshida Y, Gu C. Semaphorin 3E-Plexin-D1 signaling regulates VEGF function in developmental angiogenesis via a feedback mechanism. Genes & development. 2011;25(13):1399-411. doi: 10.1101/gad.2042011.

Kwon H-B, Kozorovitskiy Y, Oh W-J, Peixoto RT, Akhtar N, Saulnier JL, et al. Neuroligin-1–dependent competition regulates cortical synaptogenesis and synapse number. Nature Neuroscience. 2012;15(12):1667-74. doi: 10.1038/nn.3256.

Lacoste B, Comin CH, Ben-Zvi A, Kaeser PS, Xu X, Costa LdF, et al. Sensory-related neural activity regulates the structure of vascular networks in the cerebral cortex. Neuron. 2014;83(5):1117-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.07.034.

Lee W-CA, Bonin V, Reed M, Graham BJ, Hood G, Glattfelder K, et al. Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex. Nature. 2016;532(7599):370-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17192.

Liao F, Hori Y, Hudry E, Bauer AQ, Jiang H, Mahan TE, et al. Anti-ApoE antibody given after plaque onset decreases Aβ accumulation and improves brain function in a mouse model of Aβ amyloidosis. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2014;34(21):7281-92. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0646-14.2014.

Lok J, Sardi SP, Guo S, Besancon E, Ha DM, Rosell A, et al. Neuregulin-1 signaling in brain endothelial cells. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2009;29(1):39-43. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2008.94.

Maguire CA, Crommentuijn MH, Mu D, Hudry E, Serrano-Pozo A, Hyman BT, et al. Mouse gender influences brain transduction by intravascularly administered AAV9. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 2013;21(8):1470-1. doi: 10.1038/mt.2013.95.

Mandai K, Reimert DV, Ginty DD. Linx Mediates Interaxonal Interactions and Formation of the Internal Capsule. Neuron. 2014;83(1):93-103. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.020.

Margolis SS, Salogiannis J, Lipton DM, Mandel-Brehm C, Wills ZP, Mardinly AR, et al. EphB-Mediated Degradation of the RhoA GEF Ephexin5 Relieves a Developmental Brake on Excitatory Synapse Formation. Cell. 2010;143:442-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.038.

Merkel SF, Andrews AM, Lutton EM, Mu D, Hudry E, Hyman BT, et al. Trafficking of adeno-associated virus vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2017;140(2):216-30. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13861.

Myre MA, Lumsden AL, Thompson MN, Wasco W, MacDonald ME, Gusella JF. Deficiency of huntingtin has pleiotropic effects in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. PLoS genetics. 2011;7(4):e1002052-e. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002052.

Myre MA, Washicosky K, Moir RD, Tesco G, Tanzi RE, Wasco W. Reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid beta-protein precursor by the small-molecule Differentiation Inducing Factor-1. Cellular signalling. 2009;21(4):567-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2008.12.008.

Narayanan S, Arthanari H, Wolfe MS, Wagner G. Molecular characterization of disrupted in schizophrenia-1 risk variant S704C reveals the formation of altered oligomeric assembly. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2011;286(51):44266-76. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.271593.

Narayanan S, Sato T, Wolfe MS. A C-terminal region of signal peptide peptidase defines a functional domain for intramembrane aspartic protease catalysis. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2007;282(28):20172-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M701536200.

Oh W-J, Gu C. Establishment of neurovascular congruency in the mouse whisker system by an independent patterning mechanism. Neuron. 2013;80(2):458-69. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.005.

Oh W-J, Gu C. The role and mechanism-of-action of Sema3E and Plexin-D1 in vascular and neural development. Seminars in cell & developmental biology. 2013;24(3):156-62. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2012.12.001.

Orefice LL, Zimmerman AL, Chirila AM, Sleboda SJ, Head JP, Ginty DD. Peripheral Mechanosensory Neuron Dysfunction Underlies Tactile and Behavioral Deficits in Mouse Models of ASDs Article Peripheral Mechanosensory Neuron Dysfunction Underlies Tactile and Behavioral Deficits in Mouse Models of ASDs. Cell. 2016;166(2):1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.033.

Patten BA, Sardi SP, Koirala S, Nakafuku M, Corfas G. Notch1 signaling regulates radial glia differentiation through multiple transcriptional mechanisms. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2006;26(12):3102-8. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4829-05.2006.

Pease SE, Segal RA. Preserve and protect: maintaining axons within functional circuits. Trends in neurosciences. 2014;37(10):572-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2014.07.007.

Periquet M, Fulga T, Myllykangas L, Schlossmacher MG, Feany MB. Aggregated alpha-synuclein mediates dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2007;27(12):3338-46. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0285-07.2007.

Persson L, Witt RM, Galligan M, Greer PL, Eisner A, Pazyra-Murphy MF, et al. Shh-proteoglycan interactions regulate maturation of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Developmental neurobiology. 2014;74(12):1255-67. doi: 10.1002/dneu.22202.

Prada CM, Garcia-Alloza M, Betensky RA, Zhang-Nunes SX, Greenberg SM, Bacskai BJ, et al. Antibody-mediated clearance of amyloid-beta peptide from cerebral amyloid angiopathy revealed by quantitative in vivo imaging. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2007;27(8):1973-80. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5426-06.2007.

Robles MS, Boyault C, Knutti D, Padmanabhan K, Weitz CJ. Identification of RACK1 and Protein Kinase C as Integral Components of the Mammalian Circadian Clock. Science. 2010;327(5964):463-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1180067.

Roy K, Murtie JC, El-Khodor BF, Edgar N, Sardi SP, Hooks BM, et al. Loss of erbB signaling in oligodendrocytes alters myelin and dopaminergic function, a potential mechanism for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007;104(19):8131-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0702157104.

Rutlin M, Ho CY, Abraira VE, Cassidy C, Bai L, Woodbury CJ, Ginty DD. The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Direction Selectivity of Aδ-LTMRs. Cell. 2014;159(7):1640-1651. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.038.

Sandau US, Mungenast AE, Alderman Z, Sardi SP, Fogel AI, Taylor B, et al. SynCAM1, a synaptic adhesion molecule, is expressed in astrocytes and contributes to erbB4 receptor-mediated control of female sexual development. Endocrinology. 2011;152(6):2364-76. doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1435.

Sardi SP, Murtie J, Koirala S, Patten BA, Corfas G. Presenilin-dependent ErbB4 nuclear signaling regulates the timing of astrogenesis in the developing brain. Cell. 2006;127(1):185-97. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.037.

Sato T, Ananda K, Cheng CI, Suh EJ, Narayanan S, Wolfe MS. Distinct pharmacological effects of inhibitors of signal peptide peptidase and gamma-secretase. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2008;283(48):33287-95. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M805670200.

Sato T, Diehl TS, Narayanan S, Funamoto S, Ihara Y, De Strooper B, et al. Active gamma-secretase complexes contain only one of each component. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2007;282(47):33985-93. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705248200.

Shi Q, Colodner KJ, Matousek SB, Merry K, Hong S, Kenison JE, et al. Complement C3-Deficient Mice Fail to Display Age-Related Hippocampal Decline. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2015;35(38):13029-42. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1698-15.2015.

Shin JJ, Fricker-Gates RA, Perez FA, Leavitt BR, Zurakowski D, Macklis JD. Transplanted neuroblasts differentiate appropriately into projection neurons with correct neurotransmitter and receptor phenotype in neocortex undergoing targeted projection neuron degeneration. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2000;20(19):7404-16.

Sohur US, Arlotta P, Macklis JD. Developmental Controls are Re-Expressed during Induction of Neurogenesis in the Neocortex of Young Adult Mice. Frontiers in neuroscience. 2012;6:12-. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00012.

Sohur US, Emsley JG, Mitchell BD, Macklis JD. Adult neurogenesis and cellular brain repair with neural progenitors, precursors and stem cells. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences. 2006;361(1473):1477-97. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2006.1887.

Sohur US, Padmanabhan HK, Kotchetkov IS, Menezes JRL, Macklis JD. Anatomic and molecular development of corticostriatal projection neurons in mice. Cerebral cortex (New York, NY : 1991). 2014;24(2):293-303. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs342.

Tata A, Stoppel DC, Hong S, Ben-Zvi A, Xie T, Gu C. An image-based RNAi screen identifies SH3BP1 as a key effector of Semaphorin 3E-PlexinD1 signaling. The Journal of cell biology. 2014;205(4):573-90. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201309004.

Tofaris GK, Kim HT, Hourez R, Jung J-W, Kim KP, Goldberg AL. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 promotes alpha-synuclein degradation by the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011;108(41):17004-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109356108.

Wainger BJ, Buttermore ED, Oliveira JT, Mellin C, Lee S, Saber WA, et al. Modeling pain in vitro using nociceptor neurons reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Nature neuroscience. 2015;18(1):17-24. doi: 10.1038/nn.3886.

Wang SSH, Held RG, Wong MY, Liu C, Karakhanyan A, Kaeser PS. Fusion Competent Synaptic Vesicles Persist upon Active Zone Disruption and Loss of Vesicle Docking. Neuron. 2016;91(4):777-91. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.07.005.

Wang S, Tsun Z-Y, Wolfson RL, Shen K, Wyant GA, Plovanich ME, et al. Metabolism. Lysosomal amino acid transporter SLC38A9 signals arginine sufficiency to mTORC1. Science (New York, NY). 2015;347(6218):188-94. doi: 10.1126/science.1257132.

Wu H-Y, Hudry E, Hashimoto T, Kuchibhotla K, Rozkalne A, Fan Z, et al. Amyloid beta induces the morphological neurodegenerative triad of spine loss, dendritic simplification, and neuritic dystrophies through calcineurin activation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2010;30(7):2636-49. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4456-09.2010.

Wu H-Y, Hudry E, Hashimoto T, Uemura K, Fan Z-Y, Berezovska O, et al. Distinct dendritic spine and nuclear phases of calcineurin activation after exposure to amyloid-β revealed by a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2012;32(15):5298-309. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0227-12.2012.

Wu L-J, Sweet T-B, Clapham DE. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVI. Current progress in the mammalian TRP ion channel family. Pharmacological reviews. 2010;62(3):381-404. doi: 10.1124/pr.110.002725.

Wu L-J, Wu G, Akhavan Sharif MR, Baker A, Jia Y, Fahey FH, et al. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enhances brain damage from ischemic stroke. Nature neuroscience. 2012;15(4):565-73. doi: 10.1038/nn.3059.

Wu L-J, Wu G, Sharif MRA, Baker A, Jia Y, Fahey FH, et al. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enhances brain damage from ischemic stroke. Nature Neuroscience. 2012;15(4):565-73. doi: 10.1038/nn.3059.

Yamada T, Yang Y, Hemberg M, Yoshida T, Cho HY, Murphy JP, et al. Promoter decommissioning by the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex triggers synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain. Neuron. 2014;83(1):122-34. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.039.

Yang Y, Yamada T, Hill KK, Hemberg M, Reddy NC, Cho HY, et al. Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates neural coding. Science. 2016;353(6296):1216-29. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4225.

Yu W-M, Appler JM, Kim Y-H, Nishitani AM, Holt JR, Goodrich LV. A Gata3-Mafb transcriptional network directs post-synaptic differentiation in synapses specialized for hearing. eLife. 2013;2:e01341-e. doi: 10.7554/eLife.01341.

Yung AR, Nishitani AM, Goodrich LV. Phenotypic analysis of mice completely lacking netrin 1. Development (Cambridge, England). 2015;142(21):3686-91. doi: 10.1242/dev.128942.

Yung AR, Nishitani AM, Goodrich LV. Phenotypic analysis of mice completely lacking netrin 1. Development (Cambridge, England). 2015;142(21):3686-91. doi: 10.1242/dev.128942.

Zimmerman A, Bai L, Ginty DD. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science (80- ). 2014;346(6212):950-954. doi:10.1126/science.1254229.